In this lesson, we will learn the remaining cases (vocative, dative, instrumental, and locative) for 1st and 2nd declension nouns. We will also learn the indicative present active for AII and BII verbs. Finally, we will learn some prepositions which take the instrumental case.
REMAINING CASES OF NOUNS
In general, the remaining cases of nouns left to be learned are used in the following ways:
The vocative case is used when addressing a person either by their proper name or by a common noun referring to the person being addressed. For example:
Brennus, let’s leave Rome.
Brother, let’s go to the village.
In the above examples, the words “Brennus” (proper name) and “brother” (common noun) would be put in the vocative case.
The dative case is used to indicate the indirect object of a sentence and is usually translated with the word “to” preceding the noun. For example:
He gave a cloak to the man.
In the above example, “man” would be put in the dative case with the word “to” implied by the dative case.
The instrumental case is used to indicate the means by which the subject achieves an action and is usually translated with the word “with” or even the phrase “by means of” preceding the noun. The instrumental case is also used to indicate the agent of an action when the verb is expressed in a passive manner and is usually translated with the word “by” preceding the noun. For example:
The warrior killed the enemy with a sword.
The dinner was eaten by the family.
In the first example, the word “sword” would be put in the instrumental case and the word “with” is implied by the instrumental case because it tells the means by which.
In the second example, the word “family” would be placed in the instrumental case and the word “by” is implied by the instrumental case because it tells the agent of an action.
The locative case is used to indicate location and is usually translated with the word “in” or “at” preceding the noun. For example:
The boy is staying at the house of his uncle.
In the example, the word “house” would be put in the locative case and the word “at” is implied by the locative case.
1ST AND 2ND DECLENSIONS
The vocative, dative, instrumental, and locative endings for the 2nd declension are as follows:
|-e||masculine/neuter singular vocative|
|-ūs||masculine/neuter plural vocative|
|-ū||masculine/neuter singular dative|
|-obo(s)||masculine/neuter plural dative|
|-ū||masculine/neuter singular instrumental|
|-obi(s)||masculine/neuter plural instrumental|
|-ē||masculine/neuter singular locative|
|-obi(s)||masculine/neuter plural locative|
The vocative, dative, instrumental, and locative endings for the first declension are as follows:
-afeminine singular vocative
|-ās||feminine plural vocative|
|-ī||feminine singular dative|
|-ābo(s)||feminine plural dative|
|-iā||feminine singular instrumental|
|-ābi(s)||feminine plural instrumental|
|-ī||feminine singular locative|
|-ābi(s)||feminine plural locative|
In the above endings, you will notice some have “(s)” at the end. This means that if the word following starts with a vowel, then the “s” is added to the ending. Also, if the word is the last word in the sentence, then the “s” is added as well. However, if the word following starts with a consonant, then the “s” is not added.
Now, let’s take a look at a sample sentence which uses all of the cases we have learned in this lesson and the first two lessons. Our sample sentence will contain nouns from both the 2nd and 1st declensions. We will also be using the new verb beret (to bring, carry, bear).
gobanne, uiros Alisiī beret scēton nerū toutiās epū.
Blacksmith, a man in Alesia is bringing a shield to the warrior of the tribe by means of a horse.
In the above sample sentence, gobanne is vocative, uiros is nominative, Alisiī is locative, scēton is accusative, toutiās is genitive, and epū is instrumental.
1st and 2nd declension adjectives follow the same paradigm as their similarly named noun declensions.
AII AND BII VERBS
In the paradigms below, we will be using the verb arcīt (to ask, request) for AII verbs and we will be using gariet (to call, summon, invoke) for BII verbs.
|arcīte||you (all) ask|
|gariete||you (all) summon|
Notice that the difference between AII verbs and AI verbs is that AII verbs have an -ī- at the end of the root whereas AI verbs have an -ā- added to the root. The only difference between BII verbs and BI verbs is that BII has an -i- added to the root before the regular BI ending.
Below are some Gaulish prepositions which take the instrumental case.
are (+ inst.) = before
au (+ inst.) = (away) from
con (+ inst.) = with
entra (+ inst.) = on, upon
eri (+ inst.) = about
ex (+ ints.) = out of
in (+ inst.) = in, at
onco (+ inst.) = beside, next to
APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED
agos, -i (battle)
arduā, -iās (hill)
bardos, -i (singer, poet, bard)
crottā, -iās (lyre)
dēuā, -iās (goddess)
dēuos, -i (god)
nemeton, -i (sacred woods)
regentios, -i (ancestor)
uegnos, -i (wagon)
uergon, -i (work, deed)
uīnon, -i (wine)
ulidos, -i (feast, banquet)
canet (to sing)
ibet (to drink)
itāt (to go)
readdāt (to make offerings)
renet (to flow, stream, run)
bandos ā on (melodious, sweet-sounding)
catarnos ā on (brave, mighty, strong)
clutos ā on (famous, celebrated)
noibos ā on (sacred, holy)
Exercises 1. The river flows away from hill and into the tribe.
Using what you have learned in this lesson as well as the new vocabulary above, translate the following sentences into English.
1. abonā renet au arduan etic in toutan.
2. neroi ibont uinā ulidē uiri seni.
3. uiros etic donā itānt ad tegian mapi uegnū.
4. senā readdāt dēuobos etic dēuabo. .
5. neros itāt in agon con gaisū etic scētū.
Click here for answer key.
2. The warriors drink wine at the feast of the old man.
The husband and wife go to the house of the son in a wagon.
4.The priestess makes offerings to the Gods and Goddesses.
5. The warrior goes into battle with a spear and shield.
1. The river flows away from hill and into the tribe.
1. gariomosnīs dēuūs in nemetū onco aboniā.
Using what you have learned in this lesson as well as the new vocabulary above, translate the following sentences into Gaulish
1. We invoke the gods in the sacred woods beside the river.
2. The men and women of the tribe make offerings to the sacred ancestors.
3. The bards sing the brave deeds of famous warriors with the sweet-sounding lyre.
Click for the answer key.
2. uiroi etic donās toutiās readdānt regentiobo noiobos.
3. bardoi canont uergā catarnā neron cluton con crottiā bandiā.
1. gariomosnīs dēuūs in nemetū onco aboniā.