LESSON SEVEN

In this lesson, we will learn the imperative mood of verbs, the pronoun forms, and the three degrees of comparison for adjectives.

IMPERATIVE MOOD

The imperative mood is used to express a request or command. It is usually found in the present tense and in the 2nd person singular and plural. Examples in English would be “Go!” and “Leave!” In both of these instances, the subject “you” is implied. The imperative mood can also be used for what are referred to as polite commands. An example would be “Come to my house!”

The endings listed below for each Verb Class are added directly onto the verbal root. The imperative forms for each verb class are as follows:

VERB CLASS 2nd sing 2nd pl
AI -āte
AII -īe -īete
BI -e -eto
BII -ie -iete
BIII -e -ete
BIV -ate
BV -u -ute

As an example, the imperative form of the Gaulish verb sesît (AII) ‘to sit’ would be: sesîe “(you) sit!” and sesîete “(you all) sit!” When translating to English, the subject “you” or “you (all)” is left out.

PRONOUNS

Gaulish pronouns (like nouns) have different forms for each case.

First Person

SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom nīs
Acc me nos
Gen mou anson
Dat moi amē
Inst me anse
Loc me anse
Possessive Adjective mouos, -ā, -on ansonos, -ā, -on

Second Person

SINGULAR PLURAL
Nom suīs
Acc te suos
Gen tou sueson
Dat tei umē
Inst te ume
Loc te ume
Possessive Adjective touos, -ā, -on suesonos, -ā, -on

Third Person

SING PLUR
Masc Fem Neut Masc Fem Neut
Nom īs si id eis eiās eiā
Acc eion sian id eiūs eiās eiā
Gen eio eiās eio eionon eiānon eionon
Dat eiū eiī eiū eiobo(s) eiābo(s) eiobo(s)
Inst eiū eiī eiū eiobi(s) eiābi(s) eiobi(s)
Loc eiū eiī eiū eiobi(s) eiābi(s) eiobi(s)

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

In Gaulish, there are three degrees of comparison for the positive form (or the regular form) of an adjective. They are equative, comparative, and superlative.

Equative Adjectives are rendered by the English phrase “as…as.” An example in English would be “The bread is as hard as a rock.” In Gaulish, this equative degree is formed by adding the ending -isetos -ā -on to the adjective root. The thing that X is being compared to (“rock” in the English example) is placed in the instrumental case. The English example translated into Gaulish would be:

bargon essi caletiseton acaunū.

In this example, the adjective caletos, -ā, -on (‘hard’) has the equative suffix –iseton added to the adjective root calet– and agrees in gender with bargon (‘bread’), which is neuter, and the first element of the comparison. The second element of the comparison, acaunon (‘rock’) is placed in the instrumental case.

Another way to express the equative degree is to add the prefix con- to the regular adjective form. For example:

bargon essi concaleton acaunū.

Notice the equative form concaleton only differs from the regular adjective form caleton in that the equative prefix con- has been added on. Nothing else about the adjective changes.

Comparative Adjectives are rendered by the English ‘-er’ as in “taller” and “shorter”. Again, the thing that X is being compared to is placed in the instrumental case. The comparative degree is formed by adding the suffix -iūs (masc. and fem.), -ios (neut.) to the adjective root. For example, if we translated the English sentence “My horse is faster than your horse” into Gaulish, it would be:

epos mou āciūs epū tou.

In this example, the comparative consists of -ius added to the root of ācos, -ā, -on and the horse that the first one is being compared with is placed in the instrumental case, epū.

The -ius comparative forms decline as follows:

SINGULAR PLURAL
Masc and Fem Neuter Masc and Fem Neuter
Nom -ius -ios -ies -iā
Acc -ian -ios -iās -iā
Gen -ios -ios -ion -ion
Dat -ies -ies -iobi(s) -iobi(s)
Inst -ies -ies -iobi(s) -iobi(s)
Loc -ies -ies -iobi(s) -iobi(s)

Superlative Adjectives are rendered by the English ‘-est’ as in “tallest” and “shortest.” The superlative degree is formed by adding the ending -isamos, -ā, -on directly to the adjective root. Superlative adjectives also decline like regular 2nd and 1st declension adjectives. If we translated the English sentence “He is the nicest boy” into Gaulish, it would be:

essi mapos suadisamos.

In this example, the superlative consists of -isamos added to the root of suadus, -u.

NOTE: There are additional ways to translate the degrees of comparison, especially when they don’t have an object of comparison. Look at the following examples:

Equative

rēdetsī epon āciseton.

She is riding such a fast horse.

Comparative

rēdetsī epon ācian.

She is riding quite a fast horse.

Superlative

rēdetsī epon acisamon.

She is riding a very fast horse.

These meanings should be kept in mind when composing Gaulish.

Irregular Gradation

Some adjectives in Gaulish have irregular forms of gradation similar to the English “good, better, best” where the root form can change. These irregular forms are listed under the appropriate adjective in the Ueposlougos Nouiogalaticos dictionary and the Iextis Galation grammar For reference, the adjectives are:

adgossus -u “close, near”
biccos -ā -on “little, small”
cintus, -u “first”
dagos -ā -on “good”
drucos -ā -on “bad”
elus -u “many”
isselos -ā -on “low”
iouincos -ā -on “young”
letanos -ā -on “broad, wide”
māros, -ā, on “big, great”
sīros, -ā -on “long”
tresnos -ā -on “powerful”
uxelos -ā -on “high”