In this lesson, we will be learning 3rd declension nouns. For verbs, we will learn the present active indicative for BIV verbs.
3RD DECLENSION NOUNS
Unlike the previous noun declensions we have learned, 3rd declension nouns have a consonant at the end of the stem rather than a vowel. For this reason, these types of nouns are often referred to as consonantal stem declensions. There are several different subgroups within this type of declension, which is determined by the type of letter that the stem ends in. In this lesson, we will focus on the 3a and 3b declensions.
With 3a declensions, the stem ends in a -d or a -t. With 3b declensions, the stem ends in a -g or a -c. The regular endings for both declensions are as follows:
|-s||nom. sing.||-es||nom. pl.|
|-s||voc. sing.||-es||voc. pl.|
|-en||acc. sing.||-ās||acc. pl.|
|-os||gen. sing.||-on||gen. pl.|
|-ē||dat. sing.||-obo(s)||dat. pl.|
|-i||inst. sing.||-obi(s)||inst. pl.|
|-i||loc. sing.||-obi(s)||loc. pl.|
The above endings are for both masc. and fem. genders. The neut. endings are a little different and will be learned below.
Because the nom. sing. ending is an -s, it affects the final consonant in the stem and changes it to another letter. The remaining case endings are added directly onto the consonantal stem.
Let us look at a paradigm for each so that this will be more clear.
For 3a declensions, we will be using drūið, druidos (druid).
|drūið||nom. sing.||drūides||nom. pl.|
|drūið||voc. sing.||drūides||voc. pl.|
|drūiden||acc. sing.||drūidās||acc. pl.|
|drūidos||gen. sing.||drūidon||gen. pl.|
|drūidē||dat. sing.||drūidobo(s)||dat. pl.|
|drūidi||inst. sing.||drūidobi(s)||inst. pl.|
|drūidi||loc. sing.||drūidobi(s)||loc. pl.|
Technically, the nom. sing. form is drūid + s = drūids. The -ds ending ends up becoming -ð due to rules of pronunciation. The same is true if the stem ends in -t. For example, the word uelīð (mystical seer, poet) is technically uelīt + s = uelīts, which in turn becomes uelīð. The remaining cases would be uelīten, uelītos, etc. Following the standard notation for nouns, dictionaries will list 3a nouns as drūið, drūidos and as uelīð, uelītos so that you will know how the nom. sing. and subsequent cases appear. This is also true for all nouns of the 3rd declension.
Nouns in the 3b declension work in a similar way. The stems end in -g or -c, which becomes -x when the nom. sing. ending -s is added. For example, we will use rīx, rīgos (king) for the 3b paradigm.
|rīx||nom. sing.||rīges||nom. pl.|
|rīx||voc. sing.||rīges||voc. pl.|
|rīgen||acc. sing.||rīgās||acc. pl.|
|rīgos||gen. sing.||rīgon||gen. pl.|
|rīgē||dat. sing.||rīgobo(s)||dat. pl.|
|rīgi||inst. sing.||rīgobi(s)||inst. pl.|
|rīgi||loc. sing.||rīgobi(s)||loc. pl.|
As stated above, neut. nouns are a bit different. Like other declensions, neut. nouns have the same forms for nom., voc., and acc. for both sing. and pl. with regular case endings for the remaining cases. With 3rd declension neuters, the nom., voc.,and acc. sing. form is just the stem with no ending. As an example, we will look at the paradigm of dant, dantos (tooth).
|dant||nom. sing.||dantā||nom. pl.|
|dant||voc. sing.||dantā||voc. pl.|
|dant||acc. sing.||dantā||acc. pl.|
|dantos||gen. sing.||danton||gen. pl.|
|dantē||dat. sing.||dantobo(s)||dat. pl.|
|danti||inst. sing.||dantobi(s)||inst. pl.|
|danti||loc. sing.||dantobi(s)||loc. pl.|
In the paradigm below, we will be using the verb barnat (to judge, evaluate, consider) for the BIV present active indicative.
|barnate||you (all) judge|
BIV verbs are distinguished by having -NA- suffixed to the root. Also note that the 1st sing. ending -mi is different than the other verb classes ending of -u that we have learned.
APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED
NOTE: The new vocabulary is not limited to declensions and conjugations learned only in this lesson but contains declensions and conjugations learned up to this point. Also, remember the previous vocabulary we have learned as some sentences will contain those words.
adbessu, -ous (custom, tradition)
allobrox, allobrogos (stranger, foreigner)
altrauos, -i (teacher)
barnaunos, -i (judge)
beton, -i (food)
brogi, -ēs (country, territory)
cairax, cairacos (sheep)
carnux, carnucos (carynx – Gaulish war trumpet)
cingeð, cingetos (warrior)
condatis, -ēs (meeting)
cretimā, iās (religion, belief)
dedmis, -ēs (law, sacred law)
gussus, -ous (value, worth, importance)
ibetis, -ous (drink)
oigetocāriā, -iās (hospitality)
uāriā, -iās (duty)
ueneð, uenedos (merchant)
areberet (to perform, practice, use) – BI
cenget (to walk forward, advance; march) – BI
datiet (to give) – BII
parscet (to respect) – BI
prinat (to buy, purchase) – BIV
reget (to conduct) – BI
rīget (to rule, govern) – BI
uāt (to blow) – AI
couīris, -i (right, just, proper)
sueionos, -ā, -on (theirs)
are + acc. (because of, for the sake of)
areuidū + gen. (according to)
ponc (when, whenever, while)
coetic (and also)
Using what you have learned in this lesson as well as the new vocabulary above, translate the following sentences into English.
1. drūides regont condatin in brogī Carnuton.
2. storios prinat cairacās uenedi.
3. cingetes uānt carnucās ponc cengont in catun.
4. toutā parscet drūidās, uātīs, etic bardūs are gussun sueionon toutiā.
Click for answer key.
1. The druids conduct a meeting in the territory of the Carnutes.
2. The farmer purchases sheep from the merchant.
3. The warriors blow the carnyces while they march into battle.
4. The tribe respects the druids, seers, and bards because of their importance to the tribe.
Using what you have learned in this lesson as well as the new vocabulary above, translate the following sentences into Gaulish.
1. I give food and drink to the stranger according to the custom of hospitality.
2. A just king rules the tribe according to the laws of the gods.
3. The druids are the judges and teachers of the tribe and also they perform duties of religion.
Click for answer key.
1. datiūmī beton ibetinc allobrogē areuidū adbessous oigetocariās.
2. rīx couīris rīget toutan areuidū dedmēs dēuon.
3. drūides senti barnaunoi altrauoic toutiās coetic areberont uāriās cretimiās.