1.10.3 Still others have a story to the effect that they were colonists sent out by those Ligurians who are neighbours of the Umbrians. For the Ligurians inhabit not only many parts of Italy but some parts of Gaul as well, but which of these lands is their native country is not known, since nothing certain is said of them further.

13.1.1 When Camillus was besieging the city of Falerii,​ one of the Faliscans, either having given the city up for lost or seeking personal advantages for himself, tricked the sons of the most prominent families — he was a schoolmaster — and led them outside the city, as if to take a walk before the walls and to view the Roman camp. And gradually leading them farther and farther from the city, he brought them to a Roman outpost and handed them over to the men who ran out. Being brought to Camillus by these men, he said he had long planned to put the city in the hands of the Romans, but not being in possession of any citadel or gate or arms, he had hit upon this plan, namely to put in their power the sons of the noblest citizens, assuming that the fathers in their yearning for the safety of their children would be compelled by inexorable necessity to hand over the city promptly to the Romans. He spoke thus, being in great hopes of gaining some wonderful rewards for his treachery.

13.2.1 Camillus, having handed over the schoolmaster and the boys to be guarded, sent word by letter to the senate of what had happened and inquired what he should do. When the senate gave him permission to do whatever seemed best to him, he led the schoolmaster together with the boys out of the camp and ordered his general’s tribunal to be placed not far from the city gate; and when a large crowd of the Faliscans had rushed up, some of them to the walls and some to the gate, he first showed them what an outrageous thing the schoolmaster had dared to do to them; then he ordered his attendants to tear off the man’s clothes and to rend his body with a great many whips. When he had had his fill of this punishment, he handed out rods to the boys and ordered them to conduct the man back to the city with his hands bound behind his back, beating him and maltreating him in every way. After the Faliscans had got their sons back and had punished the schoolmaster in a manner his wicked plan deserved, they delivered their city up to Camillus.

13.3.1 This same Camillus,​ when conducting his campaign against Veii, made a vow to Queen Juno of the Veientes that if he should take the city he would set up her statue in Rome and establish costly rites in her honour. Upon the capture of the city, accordingly, he sent the most distinguished of the knights to remove the statue from its pedestal; and when those who had been sent came into the temple and one of them, either in jest and sport or desiring an omen, asked whether the goddess wished to remove to Rome, the statue answered in a loud voice that she did. This happened twice; for the young men, doubting whether it was the statue that had spoken, asked the same question again and heard the same reply.

13.4.1 Under the consuls who succeeded Camillus​3 a pestilence visited Rome, caused by a lack of rain and severe droughts, which damaged the land devoted to orchards as well as that which was planted to corn,º so that they produced scanty and unwholesome harvests for human beings and scanty and poor grazing for stock. Countless sheep and beasts of burden perished for lack not only of fodder but also of water; to such an extent did the rivers and other streams fail, at the very season when all live stock suffers most from thirst. As for human beings, a few perished as the result of resorting to food of which they had made no previous test, while nearly all the rest were afflicted with severe maladies that began with small pustules, which broke out on various parts of the skin and ended up in large ulcers resembling cancers, evil in appearance and causing terrible pain. And there was no remedy for the agony suffered by the victims except continual scratching and tearing of the sores until the tortured flesh laid bare the bones.

13.5.1 A little later the civil tribunes,​4 in their hatred of Camillus, convened an assembly to attack him and fined him 100,000 asses. They were not unaware that his entire estate was but a small fraction of the amount of the fine, but they desired that this man who had won the most famous wars might incur disgrace by being haled to prison by the tribunes. The money was contributed by his clients and relatives from their own funds and paid over, so that he might suffer no indignity; but Camillus, feeling that the insult was unendurable, resolved to quit the city. When he had drawn near the gate and had embraced his friends there present who were lamenting and weeping at the thought of what a great man they were about to lose, he let many a tear roll down his cheeks and bewailed the disgrace that had befallen him, and then said: “Ye gods and genii who watch over the deeds of men, I ask you to become the judges of the measures I have taken with respect to the fatherland and of all my past life. Then, if you find me guilty of the charges on which the people have condemned me, that you will put a bad and shameful end to my life; but if in all the duties with which I have been entrusted by the fatherland both in peace and in war you find me to have been pious and just and free from any shameful suspicion, that you will become my avengers, bringing such perils and terrors upon those who have wronged me that they will be compelled, seeing no other hope of safety, to turn to me for help.” After uttering these words he retired to the city of Ardea.

13.6.1 The gods gave ear to his prayers,​ and a little later the city, with the exception of the Capitol, was captured by the Gauls. When the more prominent men had taken refuge on this hill and were being p247 besieged by the Gauls, — the rest of the population had fled and dispersed themselves among the cities of Italy, — the Romans who had taken refuge at Veii made a certain Caedicius commander of the army; and he appointed Camillus, absent though he was, to be general with absolute power over war and peace. And having been made leader of the embassy, he urged Camillus to become reconciled with the fatherland, bearing in mind the calamities encompassing it, such that it could bring itself to turn for help to the man whom it had despitefully used. Camillus replied: “I need no urging, Caedicius. For of my own accord, if you envoys had not come first asking me to share in the conduct of affairs, I was ready to go to you at the head of this force which you see here with me. And to you, O gods and genii who watch over the life of mortals, I am not only very grateful for the honours which ye have already shown me, but I also pray with regard to the future that my return home may prove a good and fortunate thing for the fatherland. If it were possible for a mortal to foresee the things that are to be, I never would have prayed that my country should come into such misfortunes as these, so as to need me; a thousand times over I should have preferred that my life henceforth should be unenvied and without honour rather than that I should see Rome subjected to the cruelty of barbarians and placing her remaining hopes of safety in me alone.” After speaking thus he took his forces, and appearing suddenly before the Gauls, turned them to flight; and falling upon them while they were in disorder and confusion, he slew them like sheep.

13.7.1 While those who had taken refuge on the Capitol​ were still being besieged, a youth who had been sent by the Romans from Veii to those on the Capitol and had escaped the notice of the Gauls who were on guard there, went up, delivered his message, and departed again by night. When it was day, one of the Gauls saw his tracks and reported it to the king, who called together the bravest of his men and showed them where the Roman had gone up, then asked them to display the same bravery as the Roman and attempt to ascend to the citadel, promising many gifts to those who should make the ascent. When many undertook to do so, he commanded the guards to remain quiet, in order that the Romans, supposing them to be asleep, might themselves turn to sleep. When the first men had now ascended and were waiting for those who lagged behind, in order that when their numbers were increased they might then slay the garrison and capture the stronghold, no mortal became aware of it; but some sacred geese of Juno which were being raised in the sanctuary, by making a clamour and at the same time rushing at the barbarians, gave notice of the peril. Thereupon there was confusion, shouting and rushing about on the part of all as they encouraged one another to take up arms; and the Gauls, whose numbers were now increased, advanced further inside.

13.8.1 Thereupon one of the men who had held the office of consul, Marcus Manlius, snatched up his arms and engaged with the barbarians. The one of them who had ascended first and was bringing his sword down over Manlius’ head he forestalled by striking him on the arm and cutting off his forearm, and the one who followed the first he struck in the face with his raised shield before he could come to close quarters, knocked him down and slew him as he lay there; then pressing hard upon the others, who were now in confusion, he killed some of them and pursued and pushed others over the cliff. For this act of valour he received from those who were holding the Capitol the award which was suited to those times, a man’s daily ration of wine and emmer. When the question was raised what should be done in the case of those sentries who had deserted their post where the Gauls ascended, the senate voted the death penalty against them all; but the populace, showing itself more lenient, was content with the punishment of one man, their leader. However, in order that his death might be manifest to the barbarians, he was hurled down upon them from the cliff with his hands bound behind his back. When he had been punished, there was no further carelessness on the part of the sentries, but they all kept awake the whole night long. In consequence, the Gauls, despairing of taking the fortress by deceit or surprise, began to talk of a ransom, by the payment of which to the barbarians the Romans would get back the city.

13.9.1 When they had made their compact​ and the Romans had brought the gold, the weight which the Gauls were to receive was twenty-five talents. But when the balance had been set up, the Gaul first came with the weight itself, representing the talent, heavier than was right, and then, when the Romans expressed resentment at this, he was so far from being reasonable and just that he also threw into his scales his sword together with his scabbard and also his belt, which he had taken off. And to the quaestor’s inquiry what that action meant, he replied in these words: “Woe to the vanquished!” When the full weight agreed upon was not made up because of the Gaul’s greediness, but the third part was lacking, the Romans departed after asking for time to collect the amount wanting. They submitted to this insolence of the barbarians because they were quite unaware of what was being done in the camp, as I have related, by Caedicius and Camillus.

13.10.1 The reason why the Gauls came into Italy was as follows.​8 A certain Lucumo, a prince of the Tyrrhenians, being about to die, entrusted his son to a loyal man named Arruns as guardian. Upon the death of the Tyrrhenian, Arruns, taking over the guardian­ship of the boy, proved diligent and just in carrying out his trust, and when the boy came to manhood, turned over to him the entire estate left by his father. For this service he did not receive similar kindness from the youth. It seems that Arruns had a beautiful young wife, of whose society he was extremely fond and who had always shown herself chaste up to that time; but the young man, becoming enamoured of her, corrupted her mind as well as her body, and sought to hold converse with her not only in secret but openly as well. Arruns, grieving at the seduction of his wife and distressed by the wanton wrong done him by them both, yet unable to take vengeance upon them, prepared for a sojourn abroad, ostensibly for the purpose of trading. When the youth welcomed his departure and provided everything that was necessary for trading, he loaded many skins of wine and olive oil and many baskets of figs on the waggons and set out for Gaul.

13.11.1 The Gauls at that time had no knowledge either of wine made from grapes or of oil such as is produced by our olive trees, but used for wine a foul-smelling liquor made from barley rotted in water, and for oil, stale lard, disgusting both in smell and taste. On that occasion, accordingly, when for the first time they enjoyed fruits which they had never before tasted, they got wonderful pleasure out of each; and they asked the stranger how each of these articles was produced and among what men. The Tyrrhenian told them that the country producing these fruits was large and fertile and that it was inhabited by only a few people, who were no better than women when it came to warfare; and he advised them to get these products no longer by purchase from others, but to drive out the present owners and enjoy the fruits as their own. Persuaded by these words, the Gauls came into Italy and to the Tyrrhenians known as the Clusians,​ from whence had come the man who had persuaded them to make war.

13.12.1 When ambassadors had been sent from Rome to the Gauls​ and one of them, Quintus Fabius, heard that the barbarians had gone out on a foraging expedition, he joined battle with them and slew the leader of the Gauls. The barbarians, sending to Rome, demanded that Fabius and his brother be handed over to them to pay the penalty for the men who had been slain. When the senate delayed its answer, the Gauls of necessity transferred the war to Rome. Upon hearing this, the Romans marched out of the city, bringing four entire legions of picked troops well trained in the wars, and also, from among the other citizens, those who led indoor or easy lives and had had less to do with wars, these being more numerous than the other sort. The Gauls, having put these forces to rout, reduced all of Rome except the Capitol. Nepete, a city of Italy.

14.1.1 The country of the Celts​ lies in the part of Europe which extends toward the West, between the North pole and the equinoctial setting of the sun. Having the shape of a square, it is bounded by the Alps, the loftiest of the European mountains, on the East, by the Pyrenees toward the meridian and the south wind, by the sea that lies beyond the Pillars of Hercules on the West, and by the Scythian and Thracian nations toward the north wind and the river Ister, which, descending from the Alps as the largest of the rivers on this side, and flowing through the whole continent that lies beneath the Bears, empties into the Pontic sea. This land, which is so large in extent that it may be called almost the fourth part of Europe and is well-watered, fertile, rich in crops and most excellent for grazing cattle, is divided in the middle by the river Rhine, reputed to be the largest river in Europe after the Ister. The part on this side of the Rhine, bordering upon the Scythians and Thracians, is called Germany, and extends as far as the Hercynian forest and the Rhipaean mountains; the other part, on the side facing the South, as far as the Pyrenees range and embracing the Gallic gulf, is called Gaul after the sea. The whole country is called by the Greeks by the common name Celtica (Keltikê), according to some, from a giant Celtus who ruled there; others, however, have a legend that to Hercules and Ateropê, the daughter of Atlas, were born two sons, Iberus and Celtus, who gave their own names to the lands which they ruled. 5 Others state that there is a river Celtus rising in the Pyrenees, after which the neighbouring region at first, and in time the rest of the land as well, was called Celtica. There are also some who say that when the first Greeks came to this region their ships, driven by a violent wind, came to land in the Gallic gulf, and that the men upon reaching shore called the country Celsica (Kelsikê) because of this experience of theirs;​ and later generations, by the change of one letter, called it Celtica.

14.2.1 At Athens, in the shrine of earth-born Erechtheus, an olive tree, planted by Athena at the time of her strife with Poseidon for the possession of the land, having been burned together with the other objects in the sanctuary by the barbarians when they captured the Acropolis, sent up from its stock a shoot about a cubit in length the day after the fire, the gods wishing to make it manifest to all that the city would quickly recover itself and send up new shoots in place of the old. In Rome likewise a sacred hut of Mars, built near the summit of the Palatine, was burned to the ground together with the houses round about; but when the area was being cleared for the purpose of restoring the buildings, it preserved unharmed in the midst of the surrounding ashes the symbol of the settlement of the city, a staff curved at one end, like those carried by herdsmen and shepherds, which some call kalauropes and others lagobola. With this staff Romulus, on the occasion of taking the auspices when he was intending to found the city, marked out the regions for the omens. With an army of light troops carrying nothing but their arms. Applause having burst forth, as if at something most magnificent to behold and most glorious to hear, both those who were genuinely perplexed and those who feigned extreme perplexity . . .

14.3.1 Marcus Furius the dictator​ was of all his contemporaries the most brilliant in warfare and the shrewdest in handling public affairs.

14.4.1 Manlius,​ the man who had distinguished himself for valour at the time when the Romans took refuge on the Capitol, when he was in danger of losing his life because of an attempt at tyranny, looked toward the Capitol, and stretching out his hands toward the temple of Jupiter that stood upon it, exclaimed: “Shall not even that place avail to save me which I preserved safe for you Romans when it had been captured by the barbarians? Nay, not only was I then ready to perish in your behalf, but now also I shall perish at your hands.” On this occasion, then, they let him off out of compassion, but later he was hurled down the precipice.

14.5.1 Having vanquished the enemy and loaded down his army with countless spoils, Titus Quintius, while serving as dictator, took nine cities of the enemy in nine days. Hemmed in on both sides, these god-detested people were cut down in droves.

14.6.1 The Romans are magnanimous.​ For, whereas nearly all others both in the public relations of their states and in their private lives change their feelings according to the latest developments, often laying aside great enmities because of chance acts of kindness and breaking up long-standing friendships because of slight and trivial offences, the Romans thought they ought to do just the opposite in the case of their friends and out of gratitude for ancient benefits to give up their resentment over recent causes for complaint. Even this, then, was remarkable on the part of those men, namely that they bore no malice against any of the Tusculans, but let all the offenders go unpunished; yet much more remarkable than this was the favour which they showed them after pardoning their offences. For when they were considering ways and means that nothing of the sort might happen again in that city and that none might find a ground for rebellion, they thought they ought neither to introduce a garrison into the Tusculans’ citadel nor to take hostages from the most prominent men nor to deprive of their arms those who had them nor to give any other indication of distrusting their friendship; but believing that the one thing that holds together all who belong to one another by reason either of kinship or friendship is the equal sharing of their blessings, they decided to grant citizen­ship to the vanquished, giving them a part in everything in which the native-born Romans shared. Thereby they took a very different view from that held by those who laid claim to the leader­ship of Greece, whether Athenians or Lacedaemonians — what need is there to mention the other Greeks? For the Athenians in the case of the Samians, their own colonists, and the Lacedaemonians in the case of the Messenians, who were the same as their brothers, when these gave them some offence, dissolved the ties of kinship, and after subjugating their cities, treated them with such cruelty and brutality as to equal even the most savage of barbarians in their mistreatment of people of kindred stock. One could name countless blunders of this sort made by these cities, but pass over them since it grieves me to mention even these instances. For I would distinguish Greeks from barbarians, not by their name nor on the basis of their speech, but by their intelligence and their predilection for decent behaviour, and particularly by their indulging in no inhuman treatment of one another. All in whose nature these qualities predominated I believe ought to be called Greeks, but those of whom the opposite was true, barbarians. 6 Likewise, their plans and actions which were reasonable and humane, I consider to be Greek, but those which were cruel and brutal, particularly when they affected kinsmen and friends, barbarous. The Tusculans departed, accordingly, not only without having been deprived of their possessions after the capture of their city, but having actually received in addition the blessings enjoyed by their conquerors.

14.7.1 Sulpicius, with the cognomen Rufus,​ was a man of distinction in military affairs and in his political principles followed the middle course.

14.8.1 The Gauls,​ having made an expedition against Rome for the second time, were plundering the Alban district. There, as all gorged themselves with much food, drank much unmixed wine (the wine produced there is the sweetest of all wines after the Falernian and is the most like honey-wine), took more sleep than was their custom, and spent most of their time in the shade, they gained so rapidly in corpulence and flabbiness and became so womanish in physical strength that whenever they undertook to exercise their bodies and to drill in arms their respiration was broken by continual panting, their limbs were drenched by much sweat, and they desisted from their toils before they were bidden to do so by their commanders.

14.9.1 Upon learning of this state of affairs the Roman dictator, Camillus, assembled his men and addressed them, using many arguments that incited them to boldness, among which were the following: “Better arms than the barbarians possess have been fashioned for us — breastplates, helmets, greaves, mighty shields, with which we keep our entire bodies protected, two-edged swords, and, instead of the spear, the javelin, a missile that cannot be dodged — some of them being protective armour, such as not to yield readily to blows, and others offensive, of a sort to pierce through any defence. But our foes have their heads bare, bare their breasts and flanks, bare their thighs and legs down to their feet, and have no other defence except shields; as weapons of offence they have spears and very long slashing blades. The terrain also in which we shall fight will aid us as we move downhill from higher ground, but will be adverse to them as they are forced to advance from the level to higher ground. And let no one of you stand in dread either of the enemies’ numbers or of their size, or, from looking at these advantages on their side, become less confident of the contest. On the contrary, let everyone bear in mind, first, that a smaller army which understands what must be done is superior to a large army that is uninstructed; and, second, that to those who are fighting for their own possessions Nature herself lends a certain courage in the face of danger and gives them a spirit of ecstasy like that of men possessed by a god, whereas those who are eager to seize the goods of others are apt to find their boldness weakened in the face of dangers. Nay, not even their attempts to frighten their foes and terrify them before coming to blows should cause us any dread, as if we were inexperienced in warfare. For what harm can be done to men going into battle by those long locks, the fierceness of their glance, and the grim aspect of their countenances? And these awkward prancings, the useless brandishing of their weapons, the many clashings of their shields, and all the other demonstrations of barbarian and senseless bravado, whether through motions or through sounds, indulged in by way of threats to their foes — what advantage are they calculated to bring to those who attack unintelligently, or what fear to those who with cool calculation stand their ground in the midst of danger?Do you, then, with these thoughts in mind, both those of you who were present in the earlier war against the Gauls and those of you who had no part in it by reason of your youth, the former in order that you may not, by cowardice now, bring shame upon the valour you then displayed, and you others in order that you may not be behind your elders in the display of noble deeds, go, noble sons, emulators of brave fathers, go intrepidly against the foe, having not only the gods as your helpers, who will give you the power to exact from your bitterest foes such vengeance as you have been wishing for, but also me as your general, to whose great prudence and great good fortune you bear witness. A blissful life from this time forth those of you will lead to whom it shall be granted to bring home for your fatherland its most distinguished crown, and a splendid and imperishable renown in place of your mortal bodies those of you will bequeath to your infant children and your aged parents who shall fulfil thus the end of your lives. I know of nothing more that needs to be said; for the barbarian army is already in motion, advancing against us. But be off and take your places in the ranks.”

14.10.1 Now the barbarians’ manner of fighting, being in large measure that of wild beasts and frenzied, was an erratic procedure, quite lacking in military science. Thus, at one moment they would raise their swords aloft and smite after the manner of wild boars,​ throwing the whole weight of their bodies into the blow like hewers of wood or men digging with mattocks, and again they would deliver crosswise blows aimed at no target, as if they intended to cut to pieces the entire bodies of their adversaries, protective armour and all; then they would turn the edges of their swords away from the foe. On the other hand, the Romans’ defence and counter-manoeuvring against the barbarians was steadfast​ and afforded great safety. For while their foes were still raising their swords aloft, they would duck under their arms, holding up their shields, and then, stooping and crouching low, they would render vain and useless the blows of the others, which were aimed too high, while for their own part, holding their swords straight out, they would strike their opponents in the groins, pierce their sides, and drive their blows through their breasts into their vitals. And if they saw any of them keeping these parts of their bodies protected, they would cut the tendons of their knees or ankles and topple them to the ground roaring and biting their shields and uttering cries resembling the howling of wild beasts. Not only did their strength desert many of the barbarians as their limbs failed them through weariness, but their weapons also were either blunted or broken or no longer serviceable. For besides the blood that flowed from their wounds, the sweat pouring out over their whole bodies would not let them either grasp their swords or hold their shields firmly, since their fingers slipped on the handles and no longer kept a firm hold. The Romans, however, being accustomed to many toils by reason of their unabating and continuous warfare, continued to meet every peril in noble fashion.

14.11.1 In Rome there were many other heaven-sent portents,​ but the greatest of all was this: Near the middle of the Forum, they say, a cleft in the earth appeared of fathomless depth and it remained for many days. Pursuant to a decree of the senate, the men in charge of the Sibylline oracles consulted the books and reported that when the earth had received the things of greatest value to the Roman people it would not only close up, but would also send up a great abundance of all blessings for the future. When the men had made this announcement, everyone brought to the chasm the first-fruits of all the good things he thought the father land needed, not only cakes made of grain, but also the first-fruits of his money. Then a certain Marcus Curtius, who was accounted among the first of the youths because of his prudence and his prowess in war, sought admission to the senate and declared that of all blessings the finest thing and the one most essential to the Roman state was the valour of its men; if, therefore, the earth should receive some first-fruits of this and the one who offered it to the fatherland should do so voluntarily, the earth would send up many good men. Having said this and promised that he would not yield this distinction to anyone else, he girded on his arms and mounted his war-horse. And when the multitude in the city had gathered to witness the spectacle, he first prayed to the gods to fulfil the oracles and grant that many men like himself should be born to the Roman state; then, giving the horse free rein and applying the spurs, he hurled himself down the chasm. And after him were thrown down the chasm many victims, many fruits, much money, much fine apparel, and many first-fruits of all the different crafts, all at the public expense. And straightway the earth closed up.

14.12.1 The Gaul was a tremendous creature in bulk, far exceeding the common build. Licinius Stolo,​ the man who had held the tribune­ship ten times and had introduced the laws over which the ten-years’ sedition occurred, when he was found guilty at his trial and condemned by the populace to pay a monetary fine, declared that there is no wild beast more bloodthirsty than the populace, which does not spare even those who feed it.

14.13.1 When the consul Marcius was besieging Privernum​ and no hope of saving themselves was left to the inhabitants, they sent envoys to him. To his query, “Tell me, how do you yourselves punish your household slaves who run away from you? the envoy answered: “As those must be punished who long to recover their native freedom.” Marcius, accepting his frankness of speech, asked: “If, then, we listen to you and give up our anger, what assurance will you give us that you will not again commit any hostile act?” The envoy answered again: “That rests with you and the other Romans, Marcius. For if we get back our liberty along with our country, we shall be your staunch friends always; but if we are compelled to be slaves, never.” Marcius admired the lofty spirit of the men and raised the siege.

Earnest Cary in the Loeb Classical Library, 7 volumes, Greek texts and facing English translation: Harvard University Press, 1937 thru 1950