In Galatîs Litauiâs we follow the Galatibessus Îanoi. These Îanoi were created by Bessus Nouiogalation.
The Druides left behind three sacred laws they are as follows.
I. The gods must be worshipped.
II. No evil done.
III. Exercise valour.
Diogenes Laertius’s “Vitæ”, introductory verse 5
The Îanoi below are separated into three sections following the Druides laws, which we call Trirextoues (Three Laws). Connected to each one is the four Îanoi, giving us a total of twelve Îanoi.
Dugie Dêuoi – “Honor the Gods”
- Dêuocariâ (piety) Piety is important because by seeking and acting on honoring the Dêuoi, we bring ourselves closer to Them. In doing so, it helps us learn all other right actions. Not every pious person is otherwise virtuous. However, they’re arguably not pious. As part of piety is not simply regular worship, but learning the virtues each of the Dêuoi has to teach.
- Luxtiâ (duty) The Dêuoi fulfill Their duties perfectly. Of course, we do not always fulfill our duties perfectly. It’s part of being human. Though as doniâ (humans), we don’t let imperfection stop us from acting. And so it’s important to remind ourselves to act on the duties we agree too. Just as the Dêuoi would.
- Uissus (wisdom/knowledge) To be wise is to have knowledge of the teachings of the Dêuoi. As well as how to put them into action. The Druides of the past were exalted for their wisdom, but you don’t have to be one to learn the lessons of the Dêuoi and the world. Nor to act upon them. As wisdom is not passive, but active.
- Îanolabâ (right speech) Something particularly relevant to the Gauls. As Ogmios, what the Romans said their northern neighbours called Hercules. However, Ogmios was shown as older, as opposed to the younger Hercules. The reason why is that the Gauls in particular valued eloquence, as speech can bind wills more effectively than strength.
Gneie ne drucos – “Do no evil”
- Doniocariâ (compassion) Compassion is one of the most essential ways to ensure we do good instead of evil. How we respond to the suffering of others, and that we are aware of their pain is one of the most integral parts of the human condition.
- Oigetocâriâ (hospitality) This is a key one. Through being hospitable, we forge connections and bonds with others, strengthening our communities. Both in person and online, as guest and host relations still apply. An example of Gaulish hospitality can be shown in ‘Library of History‘, from Diodorus Siculus (5.28):
- Raton (generosity) Until recently, people weren’t celebrated for being greedy. As one who is miserly is denying resources to the community. Sharing and generosity remind us that we are all interconnected. Without the goods or services others offer, a society cannot function. By being greedy in our personal lives, we cannot make friends. Generosity goes beyond material wealth, and includes company, kind words, a listening ear. Many qualities we associate with good people even today.
- Uiridos (truth) This is a more complex concept than simply “not lying”. As sometimes, in rare cases, lying is a course of action that serves truth. An example would be lying to protect someone from violence and harm if the assailant was looking for them. To live in truth is to be truthful to one’s actions and be authentic. It is to act in a way that fosters honesty, justice, fairness, and virtue.
Biue eni mêdê – “Live in honor”
- Decos (honour) We’ll get the obvious out of the way first. Honour ties into many other virtues as it is based on how well you live up to all of the other virtues. Thus, reputation ties directly into this as well. Your honour is measured by your integrity and virtue.
- Uîroioniâ (justice) To be honourable is to also be just. To exercise fairness in our decisions and actions. It also requires the knowledge of making decisions in a just manner. As acting I’m a fair and just ways is important, so is speaking out when justice is being violated. And that takes a little of the next virtue.
- Galâ (bravery) To be brave is another thing that isn’t always easily understood. It is not fearlessness. Bravery is doing something in spite of fear. And bravery is living up to the virtues even when it is inconvenient or when everyone around you disregards them. It’s also about having the fortitude to admit a mistake or flaw, as well as face consequences for one’s wrongdoings.
- Ûxelliâ (pride) In the “over culture” we’re often taught that this is not a virtue. However, pride is not synonymous with arrogance. Being proud of one’s deeds is virtuous and can inspire others to also be virtuous. Whereas arrogance is for the self and doesn’t benefit anyone else. Pride also is about fostering a sense of self worth, and in turn recognising the worth of others. When in line with the other virtues, pride can help foster a sense of community and commitment to the common good.
Learn more at https://nouiogalatis.org/2020/05/01/ianoi-virtues/